- Lizzie Crozier French, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the C. M. McClung Historical Collection, Knox County Public Library.
- Anne Dallas Dudley, ca. 1917. Courtesy of the Bain News Service Photograph Collection, Library of Congress.
- Juno Frankie Pierce, n.d. Courtesy of the First Baptist Church Capitol Hill, Nashville, Tennessee.
- Ida B. Wells-Barnett, ca. 1893, by Mary Garrity. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
- Rebecca Latimer Felton, ca. 1922. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
- Robin Morgan, August 6, 1977. Courtesy of Bettman/Getty Images.
- Charlotte Bunch, student photo, Duke University, 1965. Courtesy of Charlotte Bunch.
- Eleanor Holmes Norton, Committee of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, July 28, 1977, by Marion S. Trikosko. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
- Mab Segrest, 1979, photographer unknown. Courtesy of the Mab Segrest Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University. Reproduced by permission of Mab Segrest.
- Lillian Smith, Laurel Falls Camp, Clayton, Georgia, ca. 1940. Courtesy of the Vanishing Georgia Collection (rab356), Georgia Archives.
- Anne Braden. Courtesy of the University of Louisville Anne Braden Institute for Social Justice Research.
- Pauli Murray, ca. 1940. Courtesy of the Everett Collection Historical/Alamy Stock Photo.
- Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, ca. 1980. Courtesy of Jacquelyn Dowd Hall.
- Anne Firor Scott, October 15, 1985. Courtesy of the Duke University Archives.
- Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi, May 14, 2015, by Jemal Countess. Courtesy of Getty Images for the New York Women’s Foundation.
- Carolyn Kay Steedman, Landscape for a Good Woman: A Story of Two Lives (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 5.
- “Interchange: Women’s Suffrage, the Nineteenth Amendment, and the Right to Vote,” Journal of American History 106, no. 3 (2019): 662–694, 684.
- Tennessee Woman Suffrage Memorial website, accessed July 1, 2020, http://tnwomansmemorial.org/.
- Ellen Carol DuBois, Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997), 62.
- DuBois, Harriot Stanton Blatch, 197. For the roots of white suffragists’ arguments to consolidate white political power by expanding white women’s suffrage, see Crystal N. Feimster, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 199–200.
- Martha S. Jones, Vanguard: How Black Women Broke Barriers, Won the Vote, and Insisted on Equity for All (New York: Basic Books, 2020); Mary Ellen Pethel, “Lift Every Female Voice: Education and Activism in Nashville’s African American Community, 1870–1940,” in Tennessee Women: Their Lives and Times, ed. Beverly Greene Bond and Sarah Wilkerson Freeman, vol. 2 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015), 239–269, 260; Elaine Weiss, The Woman’s Hour: The Great Fight to Win the Vote (New York: Viking, 2018), 187–188. On the limited concept of sisterhood, see Hazel Carby, “White Women Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood,” in Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader, ed. Les Back and John Solomos (New York: Routledge, 2009), 444–458.
- Feimster, Southern Horrors; Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women’s Campaign Against Lynching, rev. ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).
- Benita Roth, Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America’s Second Wave (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 65–66.
- Judith Ezekial, Feminism in the Heartland (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2002), 1; Joanne Cook, “Here’s to You, Mrs. Robinson,” motive xxix, nos. 6 and 7 (March–April 1969): 5.
- Black Woman’s Manifesto, Atlanta Lesbian Feminist Alliance (ALFA) Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University, accessed July 1, 2020, https://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/wlmpc_wlmms01009/.
- Jaime Harker, The Lesbian South: Southern Feminists, the Women in Print Movement, and the Queer Literary Canon (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018), 16; Julie R. Enszer, “Night Heron Press and Lesbian Print Culture in North Carolina, 1976–1983,” Southern Cultures 21, no. 2 (Summer 2015): 43–56; Grace Abels, “Mab Segrest on building a Southern movement for all,” Facing South, July 16, 2020, https://www.facingsouth.org/2020/07/mab-segrest-building-southern-freedom-movement-all.
- Great Speckled Bird 9, no. 2, March 1976.
- Cynthia Washington, “We Started from Different Ends of the Spectrum,” Southern Exposure 4, no. 4 (1977): 14–15.
- The synthetic accounts of the American women’s movement acknowledge the significance of the southern Civil Rights Movement but, with few exceptions, do not examine feminist activism in the South. For one example, see Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America (New York: Penguin Books, 2006).
- Pauli Murray, “The Fourth Generation of Proud Shoes,” Southern Exposure (1977): 4–9; Anne Braden, “A Second Open Letter to White Women,” in “Generations: Women in the South,” special issue, Southern Exposure (1977): 50–53. See also Great Speckled Bird 1, no. 34, February 17, 1969.
- Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “Partial Truths,” Signs 14, no. 4 (Summer, 1989): 902–911; Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and Anne Firor Scott, “Women in the South,” in Interpreting Southern History: Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham, ed. John B. Boles and Evelyn T. Nolen (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1987), 454–509.
- Elizabeth Gillespie McRae, Mothers of Massive Resistance: White Women and the Politics of White Supremacy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018). On the backlash to feminism, see Marjorie J. Spruill, Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values that Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017).
- Alisha Haridasani Gupta, “Why Aren’t We All Talking about Breonna Taylor?,” New York Times, June 4, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/04/us/breonna-taylor-black-lives-matter-women.html; “Violence Against the Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Community in 2020,” Human Rights Campaign, accessed July 1, 2020, https://www.hrc.org/resources/violence-against-the-trans-and-gender-non-conforming-community-in-2020.
- Alysia Harris, “The South Hollers ‘Black Lives Matter,’” Scalawag, June 11, 2020, https://www.scalawagmagazine.org/2020/06/southern-small-protests-rural/; Malcolm Burnley, “Author Brittney Cooper on Harnessing Rage, Right Now,” New York Times, June 20, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/20/us/20IHW-black-lives-matter-protests-brittney-cooper-women.html.